In this page, critiques on the Erikson's theory has been made. Also, progress made by Neo-Eriksonians has been addressed. Lastly, contemporary progress were presented.


‍‍‍‍Neo-Eriksonians
: Critiques on Theories‍‍‍‍

1. Critiques on Erikson's Theory
‍‍‍‍‍Pheonix and Rattansi's Critique (2005)‍‍‍‍‍
a. ‍‍‍‍‍Overemphasis on adolescent‍‍‍‍‍ period by indicating the identity achievement => Adult identity development has been relatively ignored.
b. Erikson's works have been challenged by the critiques such as he failed to be fully aware of the importance of gender and race issue in his theory.
c. Applicability to post modern societies
- The social was conceptualized as "outside" of an individual or "context"
d. A universal theory which attempts to encompass all aspects of human development
e. Vague concept on the construct of identity

2. ‍‍‍‍‍Progress in Post Eriksonians and Contemporary Eriksonian‍‍‍‍‍s‍‍‍‍‍ ‍‍‍
a. Marcia (2002) paid attention to adult identity. Kroger (2002) also started to address the adult identity.
b. Schwartz (2005). that it is needed to consider the diverse aspects of target population in identity research such as non-Whites sample, adolescents who dropping out of school or entering the work field, and younger adolescents.
c. Henriques, Hollway, Urwin, Venn, and Walkerdine (1984; 1998) and Rattansi (1994) r‍‍‍‍‍egarded the relationship between the individual and the social as a unified link.‍‍‍‍‍
d. The assumption that societal influence will be the same in all context may not be true. The context may be different for certain populations such as race, ethnicity, social class, and gender. Is this an influence of social constructionists' perspective on the neo-Eriksonians' perspective?
e. Berzonsky (2005) suggested to define explicitly the construct of identity such as "ego identity, social identity, multiple identities, multiple aspects of identity, and the like" (pp. 125-126).

3. Critiques on Post Eriksonians' Theory
Schwartz put critique on the contemporary identity research (2005).
a. Narrowness of the focus: Marcia's (1966) identity status paradigm which falls into the category of neo-Eriksonian theory has mostly emphasized. The identity status has been criticised as underrepresenting Erikson (e.g., Côté & Levine, 1988; Schwartz (2001); van Hoof, 1999).

4. Attempts to identify different social influence on identity development
  • Gender ‍‍‍‍‍Differences‍‍‍‍‍. Streitmatter (1993) examined the gender differences of developing identity. The results from the study indicated that the overall change of identity development patter were similar for female and male students. This results supports the Erikson's stage theory.