Recent Changes

Thursday, February 11

  1. page Kathleen Niegocki edited {IMG_1101.jpg} Kathleen L. Niegocki, M.A. 2nd year Doctoral Student in Counseling Psychology …
    Kathleen L. Niegocki, M.A.
    2nd year Doctoral Student in Counseling Psychology
    Cognate: Social Psych
    Astrological Sign: Leo
    Hometown: NYC
    "Serious" interests: Counseling, trauma, impact of abuse, feminist and interpersonal theories,
    college students, prevention and outreach, social justice, qualitative paradigm, victim advocacy,
    grief and loss, coping, posttraumatic growth, meaning-making, positive psychology
    Fun interests: travel, spending time with family, good food, good wine, music, random adventures,
    watching Chopped on DVR, taking photos of scenery, writing, bein silly, trying to jog, playing
    Scrabble, Broadway shows and plays, woohoo!
    so true...
    This song is good and I have been listening to it lately:

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    2:21 pm

Tuesday, November 11

  1. page Emily Mastroianni edited {profile_pic_foutain.jpg} Emily Mastroianni M.A./Ph.D. Student Counseling Psychology Gradua…
    Emily Mastroianni
    M.A./Ph.D. Student
    Counseling Psychology
    Graduate Assistant at Center for Peace and Conflict Studies
    Ball State University
    Professional Interests:
    Women's issues; particularly intimate partner violence prevention and intervention and attitudes toward women
    Spiritual and religious identity development and uses of spirituality and religion counseling
    Social Justice
    Identity development, especially feminist identity development
    Career Aspirations:
    One day I want to be an undergraduate professor. I hope to continue to do research, teach, and mentor students. Before entering academia though I would like to work in a community setting. My dream is to one day open a holistic clinic (counseling, yoga, nutrition) that includes a community cafe. I think this setting would promote wellness through community belonging.
    Personal Interests:
    Watching movies
    Hanging out with friends (playing board games, going to the bar)
    Learning how to cook and enjoying what I make
    Random Questions and Answers:
    If I was an animal I would want to be a kind of bird so I could fly, but I have been told I look most like a
    . {koala2.jpg}
    If I could have a magical power I would like to morph in to animals (yes, I was Animorph fan as a kid).
    If I only had 24 hours to live I would want to eat a final meal with all my family and friends. We go out to a cabin in the woods and have a 7 course meal with lots of wine and ending with ice cream. There would be lots of music, dancing, and laughing to follow. Then stories around the campfire and s'mores.

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    5:49 am

Friday, October 31

  1. 5:58 am
  2. page Theory Assignments for Pages and Feedback edited ... April Krowel Caleb Tipple Juno Park Emily Barnum Laura Walker ... Kathleen Niegochi E…
    April Krowel
    Caleb Tipple
    Juno Park
    Emily Barnum
    Laura Walker
    Kathleen Niegochi
    Erin Tahvonen
    Juno Park
    David Adams
    Emily Mastroianni
    (view changes)
    5:48 am
  3. page Gendered Behavior edited What Develops? {778px-WomanFactory1940s.jpg} G‍‍‍ende‍‍‍r-the economic, political, and cultura…

    What Develops? {778px-WomanFactory1940s.jpg}
    G‍‍‍ende‍‍‍r-the economic, political, and cultural attributes and opportunities associated with being male or female. The social definitions of what it means to be male or female vary among cultures and change over time.
    Gendered behavior-behavior that differs on the average for males and females and that it illustrates a sex or gender difference.
    Gender identity-basic awareness of being a girl or a boy (female or male).
    Gender stability-awareness that gender does not change over‍‍‍‍‍ time‍‍‍‍‍.
    Gender consistency-awareness that gender does not change with changes in appearance or activities.
    Gender ‍‍‍schemas‍‍‍ -active, dynamic constructions that organize knowledge about gender (which influences perceptions, thoughts, and behaviors related to gender).
    Gender role-the outward expression and demonstration of gender identity, through behaviors, attire, and culturally determined characteristics of femininity and masculinity.
    History: Conceptualizations of Gendered Behavior within Psychology
    Psychology's approach to gender and its relationship with human behavior has evolved over time.
    Early Years
    Early in psychology, sex and gender were viewed as inseparable from one another. Men were masculine, women were feminine. Biology was seen as the basis of behavior (Palan, 2001). Sigmund Freud was also influential in shaping these early understandings of gender and behavior in psychology. His core idea was that differences in male and female were natural and deep-seated. Normal individuals were those whose biological sex, gender identity, gender roles, and sexual orientation were all consistent with one another (‍‍‍Shields ‍‍‍& Dicicco, 2011).
    From the 19th to mid-20th centuries, behaviorism was a powerful paradigm guiding psychological research and theory. Behaviorism was not concerned with individual differences such as gender differences. In general, this time was not a time in which gender was emphasized in psychological research.
    Early gender research in psychology approached gender identity as existing on one continuum with masculinity and femininity as polar opposites on that single continuum. Gender identity was considered to be consistent with biological sex. The first masculinity/femininity scale was developed by Terman and Miles in 1936 and was used with the aim of discovering stable enduring traits that differed between the sexes.
    Studies in the 1960s relied primarily on the Femininity Scale of the California Personality Inventory, which also conceptualized masculinity and femininity as bipolar ends of one continuum (Palan, 2001; Shields & Dicicco, 2011).
    Winds of Change: The 1970s
    Along with the feminist movement in the U.S. came changes to how gender was understood within our field. During these years there was a shift in which gender was no longer considered unidimensional. Instead, masculinity and femininity were viewed as two distinct orthogonal dimensions that coeexisted in varying degrees within individuals (Palan, 2001). Additionally, the term "gender roles" replaced the term "sex roles" and gender became viewed as something we perform rather than something we possess. The role of social factors in shaping gender was acknowledged (McCreary & Chrisler, 2010).
    Two measures developed during this period were Bem's Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ), which allow individuals to identify to varying degrees with both masculinity and femininity. These measures also acknowledge androgyny, or equal endorsement of masculine and feminine traits (McCreary & Chrisler, 2010).
    Gender moved into the mainstream of psychology during this time. The first psychology of women textbooks were published in 1972. Division 35 of the APA was founded in 1974. Sex Roles was first published in 1975, followed by Psychology of Women Quarterly in 1977. Despite these changes, many psychology experts continued to equate health and adjustment with adherence to the traits associated with one's gender (McCreary & Chrisler, 2010).
    More Recently
    The view of gender as existing along two orthogonal dimensions continues in the present. However, there is now greater recognition of how gender roles are embedded in larger contexts, i.e., social systems and power structures. There has been a move away from viewing gender simply as a trait and toward a view in which gendered behavior depends on the interaction between person, observer, and social context (Shields & Dicicco, 2011).
    Emphasis on ‍‍‍‍men and masculinity ‍‍‍‍has grown more recently than the focus on women. Prior to 1960, only 8 published articles referred to the term "masculinity." From 1960 to 1980, there were 83 manuscripts. From 1980 to 2000, there were 392. ‍‍‍‍From 2000 ‍‍‍‍to 2008, there were 491. Division 51 of the APA was formally established in 1995, and the journal Psychology of Men & Masculinity was established in 2000 (McCreary & Chrisler, 2000).
    Juno's comments on men and masculinity: The general focus of men a masculinity was on understanding men's issue within masculine gender role socialization context. Currently, two constructs are most predominant in research on men and masculinity: masculine gender role stress (MGRS) and gender role conflict (GRC). These constructs are proposed to tap men's perceived stress and conflict by their adherence to masculine gender role norms. Also, these are focusing on negative aspects of masculine gender role socialization process. Most recently, there are two movements in this area. First, several researchers started to emphasize positive aspects of masculine gender role socialization processes. Also, researchers who are interested in the subject of men and masculinity began to view masculinity as plural constructs such as masculinities. This approach seems to incorporate a diversity of masculinity into this research area. <Use the information presented in this paragraph for personal purpose only.>
    Mechanisms of Development
    Hormonal-Exposure ‍‍‍‍to testosterone during critical periods of prenatal development (in utero) promotes male-typical development of brain and behavior. Conversely, estrogen is not needed to produce female-typical development during prenatal development (it actually does the oppos‍‍‍‍ite-promotes male-typical behaviors). The more the hormone, the larger the effect.
    Naturally occurring variations in hormones during early development can influence sex-related behavior within each sex (which helps explain why some individuals are more or less sex-typical than others).
    Socialization by parents, peers, and teachers-Learning (observational/modeling as well as operant/reinforcement).
    The encouragement by parents, peers, and teachers of sex-typical behaviors and discouragement of cross-sex behaviors influences gender identity.
    Children develop gender stability or that the fact that they are male or female will not change (regardless of the activities they enjoy).
    Models of the same sex are more influential than models of the opposite sex.
    Information, objects, and activities that are labeled or categorized by sex are preferred more often, in a gender consistent manner (boys want things labeled as “for boys” even when the item was neutral like a carrot or yellow flashlight).
    Outcomes & Implications
    1. Outcomes: Similarity versus Difference
    Results from meta-analyses indicate that men and women are lagely similar behaviorally and psychologically (Hyde, 2005
    ‍‍Physical sex difference: The cohen's d for sex difference in height was 2.0 both in the United Kingdom and the United States (International Committee on Radiological Protection, 1975; Tanner, Whitehouse, & Takaishi, 1966)‍‍
    These results indicate that sex difference is relatively small and both men and women are very similar.
    OECD Health Indicators: Height
    ‍ {height.jpg} ‍
    ‍‍Most psychological or behavioral se‍‍x differences are smaller than 2.0 d (Hines, 2010)
    These results indicate that sex differences are very small and negligible.
    i. Gendered behavior in childhood
    Average difference in preferences for particular toys was found between girls and boys (Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974; Pasterski et al., 2005; Sutton-Smith, Rosenberg, & Morgan, 1963)
    Boys: Vehicles and weapons
    Girls: Dolls and tea sets
    Factors which influence children's preference in toys: Early hormone environment, socialization, Children's cognitive development
    ii. ‍‍‍‍Se‍‍‍‍xual ‍‍‍‍orientation
    Sell, Wells, and Wypij (1995) estimated that same-sex attractions and behaviors may range from 16 to 21% for men and 17 to 19% for women among the United States, France, and Great Britain sample.
    iii. Cognitive abilities
    Sex differences in general intellectual levels are negligible (e.g., Collaer & Hines, 1995; Hines, 2004).
    Even though intelligence tests are designed to avoid sex differences, the intelligence tests were gender neutral (Loehlin, 2000)
    (a) Spatial abilities
    ‍l abilites refers to the ability encompassing mental rotations, spatial perception, and spatial visualization.
    Males generally outperform females in the three constructs.
    (b) Mathematical abilities Hyde, Fennema, and Lamon (1990) found in their meta-analyses that the sex difference in mathematical bailities is negligible.
    Males outperformed in some standardized tests (e.g., SAT math: d = .38, GRE math: d = .77)
    Female children outperformed in computational skills (d = -.21)
    No sex differences in computational skills in adults (d = .00) and in understanding of mathematical concepts at any age (d = -.06) (c)
    (d) Verbal ab‍‍‍‍ilities
    Hyde and Linn (1988) found that a female advantage for general verbal ability is negligible in children and adults (d = -.11).
    Males somewhat outperformed in analogies (d = .16) Females show a small ‍‍‍‍advantage ‍‍‍‍on speech production (d = -.33)
    (e) Perceptual speed
    Adolescent females outperformed in percuptual speed and the effect size ranges from .29 to .66 (Ekstrom, French, & Harman, 1976; Feingold, 1988).
    iv. Emotion
    The sex difference in aggression and empathy can vary depending on the assessment instruct (Pasterski et al., 2007).
    The gender differences in emotions should be understood within context.
    <i> Emotion expression
    Gender differences seem slightly significant but this differences may diminish when contextual factors are controlled.
    Verbal expression: Inconsistent pattern of sex differences was found.
    e.g., Ickes et al. (2000) found that there is no gender difference in verbal expression across 7 of 10 studies they reviewed.
    e.g., Women tended to show more behavioral displays of sadness (i.e., crying), whereas men tended to avoid or join in different activities (Brody, 1996; Guerrero & Reiter, 1998).
    Nonverbal expression: Inconsistent findings independent of situational factors.
    e.g., Hall’s (1978, 1984) meta-analyses indicated that women smiled and gazed at others more, had more expressive faces, and displayed more expressive body movements than men.
    e.g., Even though females were more nonverbally expressive of sadness than males, the expression appears to be more context dependent than sex differences (LaFrance & Banaji, 1992).
    P‍‍hysiologica‍‍‍‍l responses: includes ‍facial electromyography (EMG) and functional magnetic imaginghe brain (fMRI) ‍(e.g., Bradley, 2000; Lang, 1968, 1994). Findings in this area have been inconsistent.
    e.g., Men are less emotionally expressive than women in facial expression (Kring & Gordon, 1998).
    e.g., Men showed more physiological signs of emotion than women (Brody & Hall, 1993, 2000; LaFrance & Banaji, 1992; Manstead, 1998).
    <ii> Emotion regulation
    ‍‍‍In McRae et al.'s (2008) study, men revealed lesser increases in prefrontal regions, greater decreases in the amygdala, and lesser engagement of ventral striatal regions compared with women. These results indicate that men may employ less effort in cognitive emotion regulation
    Source: McRae et al.'s (2008) study
    Men used suppression strategy for emotion regulation than women (Gross & John, 2003).
    <iii> Emotion awareness
    Grossman and Wood (1993) found that women reported greater intensity than men in experiencing emotions and women's electromyograph physiological responses were more extreme than men.
    Women seem to have greater ability in processing complex emotions than men (Feldman-Barrett et al., 2000; McRae et al, 2008)
    <iv> Emotion recognition
    Women appear to be better at recognizing another person's emotions than men (Hall et al., 2000).
    v. Aggression
    Men seem more aggressive than women in the use of physical aggression.
    Hyde (1984) concluded in the meta-analysis that only 5% of the aggression variance is explained by sex differences, the rest of the variance explained by within-gender variation or by chance.
    Murder Victims by Race and Sex, 2010
    Murder Victims by Age, Sex, and Race, 2010
    Murder Offenders by Age, Sex, and Race, 2010
    vi. Objectification
    "Sexual objectification occurs when a woman’s sexual parts or functions are separated out from her person, reduced to status of mere instruments, or else regarded as if they were capable of representing her. To be dealt with in this way is to have one’s entire being identified with the body. . ." (Barky, 1990, p. 35).
    Self-objectification among female population has been known to be associated with shame, eating disorder symptoms, depressive symptoms (e.g., Burney & Irwin, 2000; Fredrickson et al., 1998; Harrison & Fredrickson, 2003; Prichard & Tiggemann, 2005).
    Self-objectification was not associated with men's body dissatifaction (Strelan & Hargreaves, 2005). Considering that samples of men were substantially smaller than samples of women in some studies, the statistical power may be low to detect the significant relationship for men (Moradi & Huang, 2008). In addition, men's concerns about their body image is getting more attention (e.g., Hargreaves & Tiggemann, 2009).
    Gay and bisexual men appear to have higher levels of body image concerns and eating disorder symptoms than heterosexual men (e.g., Carlat, Camargo, & Herzog, 1997; Strong, Williamson, Netemeyer, & Geer, 2000).
    2. Im‍‍‍‍plicatio‍‍‍‍n
    Women and men seem to have more similarities than differences in cognitive abilities, emotions, and behaviors.
    Gender differences seem to be shaped within social context.
    e.g. Moore and Stuart (2004) found that men's aggressive behaviors were increased when they were exposed to masculine gender-relevant situations.
    e.g. People tend to perceive individuals' expressed emotions based on the gender stereotype (Plant et al., 2000; Algoe et al., 2000). For example, anger of women was perceived less intensive than anger of men.
    Development Across the Lifespan
    Both stability and change occur in attitudes on gender over the life course.
    “Androgen exposure prenatally influences sex-typed childhood behaviors, including toy, playmate, and activity preferences” (Hines, 2010, p. 349). Postnatal socialization and cognitive understanding of gender, contribute to children’s sex-typical behavior which produces average differences between the sexes as well as variability within each sex.
    Distinguishable female or male sex organs + Sex assignment at birth + Child's own body image + Rearing of child as girl or boy = Child's Core Gender Identity.
    Hormonal changes at puberty cause behavioral and physical changes related to gender and sexuality.
    Little research has been conducted on gender with adolescence. Most research on gender focuses on childhood.
    Sexual orientation (which is related to gender) is determined during adolescence.
    Sexual fantasies begin in early adolescence (ages 11-13).
    Sex-typical and sex-atypical behaviors exhibited during childhood and adolescence influences gendered behavior during adulthood.
    Family background including the education of parents and the mother’s employment, are significant sources of societal change in
    gender-role attitudes (Fan & Marini, 2000).
    Attitudes are typically stable because change requires the altering of already-adopted attitudes and individuals tend to seek out new information and experiences based on the view of attitudes they already hold including confirmatory information (that supports their beliefs).
    However, it is possible for change in gender attitudes to occur when individuals are exposed to new influences in the social environment. Gender-role attitudes are considerably stable but also change some during the transition from adolescence to adulthood.
    When individuals pursue higher education, attitudes tend to shift in an egalitarian direction for both men and women. Role changes are also associated with change in attitudes as movement in and out of the workforce influence women’s attitudes towards gender (entering the workforce shifted attitudes in an egalitarian direction and the opposite occurred with exiting the workforce).
    Entry into marriage (for women) and parenthood (for men and women) are two life changes that are associated with shifts in gender-role attitudes. When women marry, their attitudes tend to shift in a less egalitarian direction. Men and women both had attitude shifts in the less egalitarian direction following the birth of children.
    “These effects of family role changes on gender-role attitudes are likely to derive from long-standing normative expectations about gender-differentiated family roles and from gender differences in socialization and employment opportunity” (Fan & Marini, 2000, p. 280).
    Due to differences in socialization and preparation for the work and family roles, young men and women tend to differ in interests, skills, abilities, and training for the roles of early adulthood.
    “These differences, along with gender differences in attained labor market positions and rewards, lead couples to view men as having a comparative advantage for market work and women as having a comparative advantage for nonmarket work when adult family roles are entered” (Fan & Marini, 2000, p. 281).
    Gendered Behavior & Diversity
    Gender across Cultures
    Gender is not understood the same way across cultures. A number of cultural groups recognize numerous genders that are not recognized in the U.S., at least not in the mainstream. In the U.S. and Canada, many native American groups recognize two-spirit individuals, people whose bodies house both a masculine and a feminine spirit. The Bugis are an international example. The Bugis are an Indonesian population who recognize 5 separate genders. One of these is Bissu, a sort of all-encompassing gender identity which the Bugis hold in high regard.
    See the video below to learn more about gender and social roles attached to gender in the Bugis culture. One question to reflect on is, How do cultural attitudes toward specific genders impact the adjustment, well-being, and status of individuals of that‍‍‍‍ gender?‍‍‍‍
    Intersectionality of Social Identities
    Gender is one of many social identities. Recently, some psychologists are warning against examining gender differences alone; however, much research in psychology is done this way. For example, psychologists are inclined to believe that they can parcel out the effects of gender and socioeconomic status separately from one another. According to the intersectionality perspective, gender cannot be isolated from other social locations such as ability status, race, and class. Additionally, social identities are tied to systems of privilege and oppression as well as power This movement away from viewing gender in isolation is likely to continue and poses challenges to many traditional research methods
    (DeFrancisco & Palczewski, 2007; Shields & Dicicco, 2011).
    Hot Topic: ‍‍‍‍Transgender ‍‍‍‍Education
    Should schools educate children about gender diversity? There has been recent controversy surrounding the California Legislature's recent adoption of legislation that gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender education be added to the curriculum in its public school system. See the video below for a debate about this issue. (If you are brave, you can also view the comments on the original YouTube page for this video!)
    Common Methodologies
    A content analysis identified the most common research methodologies by studying all of the 2007 articles (n = 213) in The Psychology of Men and Masculinity, The Psychology of Women Quarterly, and Sex Roles.
    It was learned that a quantitative approach was used in over 85% of the published studies.
    Nonexperimental designs were common, particularly between-groups comparisons, correlational designs (generally examining more than 2 variables) including path analysis and SEM.
    Only 14% of the studies were longitudinal, and 2 studies (0.94%) were meta-analyses.
    Many quantitative analyses look beyond mere differences in a variable based on gender and also examine moderators and effect sizes to determine the strength of gender differences and better understand how they interact with other variables (McCreary & Chrisler, 2010).
    Several methodologies will be discussed in more detail below.
    Studying Hormones
    One approach to researching gendered behavior has been by investigating the role of hormones and how hormone manipulation impacts the development of gendered behavior. This has been done through two primary means.
    First, researchers have conducted experimental studies on animals such as rats and monkeys. Rats have been used as a means of demonstrating the influences of testosterone and other hormones on brain development and behavior. Research has found, for example, that female rodents exposed to testosterone during early development show adult sexual behavior that is more male-typical but not female-typical.
    Second, researchers have studied humans without doing any experimentation. This has involved studying people with genetic disorders that cause unusual hormone environments in early development, people whose mothers were prescribed hormones while pregnant, and normal hormonal variability during early development as it relates to subsequent behavior (Hines, 2010).
    Other Experimental Research
    Obviously, manipulating some ‍‍‍‍variables to study gender is impossible (e.g., brain differences) or unethical (e.g., prenatal hormones). However, researchers are still able to conduct experiments about gender, mostly in social and cognitive psychology studies.
    One area in which experiments are conducted is in the study of stereotype threat. According to stereotype threat, when a person’s social identity is attached to a negative stereotype, he or she will tend to underperform in a manner consistent with the stereotype (McCreary & Chrisler, 2010). Stereotype threat has be‍‍‍‍en manipulated in research on gender. Spencer, Steele, and Quinn (1999) found that women who excelled in math performed worse on a test than men but only when the test was described as one that produced a gender difference (the researchers manipulated stereotype threat).
    Qualitative Methods
    These are becoming increasingly popular in the study of gendered behavior although they remain in the minority. Qualitative methods that have been used in gender research include case studies, interviews, ethnography, and focus groups.
    Qualitative methods are especially conducive to conducting research from a social justice position and an intersectionality framework.
    Qualitative methods can be used by researchers when they see that gender accounts for a significant amount of variance and they want to understand the how and why of those findings (McCreary & Chrisler, 2010; Shields & Dicicco, 2011).
    In a study published in the current issue of Psychology of Women Quarterly, Huxley, Clarke, & Halliwell (2011) interviewed and coded qualitative interviews with 15 nonheterosexual women regarding their perceptions of their bodies in the context of their romantic relationships. They cited a lack of empirical investigations and simplistic existing theory in this area as part of the rationale for a qualitative approach. This study also illustrates how qualitative research is often applied to members of marginalized and minority groups. It also serves as an example of research driven by intersectionality, as it explores the intersection of gender and sexual orientation.
    Current Issues
    1. Objectification Theory
    Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) proposed a theory of sexual objectification by explaining the potential link between gender role socialization and internalized self image as a third person.
    The theory has been adopted to the research on body image concerns, eating deiorder symptoms, depression, and other mental health among women as well as men (Moradi & Huang, 2008).
    Considering that the media increasingly focus on women's body image as well as men's body image, this area may be promising for future studies.
    2. Within-group Diversity
    Considering that research on gender and gendered behaviors is mostly focused on between-group differences of women and men, future research on this area should be focused on the diversity of within-group. As mentioned above, Hyde (1984) concluded in the meta-analysis that only 5% of the aggression variance is explained by sex differences. This indicates that the concept of gender difference may be too broad to reveal individual differences.
    In recent years, the perspective of emphasizing within-group difference seems to gain more attention in this area.
    3. Gendered Behavior in Social Context
    Considering that gendered behaviors are shaped by the performer's perception about how appropriate her/his behavior is in a certain situation, studies on gendered behaviors should be examined within social/cultural context. The results from Moore and Stuart's (2004) study indicate that men's behavioral pattern may deffer depending on the situation such as gender-relevant and gender-irrelevant. Incluing contextual information seems promising in this area.
    ‍‍‍‍Strengths ‍‍‍‍in Current Knowledge and Methodology
    The increasing emphasis on men and masculinity is a strength of psychology's approach to gendered behavior.
    Recognition of the importance of intersectionality is a sign of progress in the realm of gender-related research, because gender is not a variable that exists in isolation from other social locations such as race and socioeconomic status.
    Weaknesses in Current Knowledge and Methodology
    Despite the increasing realization of the sociocultural construction of gender, many authors and researchers continue to equate gender with biological sex. Such narrow, binary, and biologically-driven definitions of gender and gendered behavior ignore important social and cultural factors may also overlook the realities of individuals who do not identify simply as male or female, or who identify with a gender identity that is different from the gender identity tied to the sex they were born into.
    There is few empirical data that explores or explains the ways in which societies value and devalue various aspects of gender. For example, human characteristics labeled "feminine" are valued much less in Western society than characteristics labeled "masculine."
    More research is needed to highlight the within-group differences instead of the between-group differences regarding gender. The idea that men and women inhabit different planets and function in complete opposites is misleading and harmful.
    Ad‍‍‍‍ditio‍‍‍‍nal R‍‍‍‍esource‍‍‍‍s
    Palan, K. L. (2001). Gender identity in consumer behavior research: A literature review and research agenda. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 10,
    Shields, S. A. & Dicicco, E. C. (2011). The social psychology of sex and gender: From gender differences to doing gender. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35(3), 491-499.
    Algoe, S. B., Buswell, B. N., & DeLamater, J. D. (2000). Gender and job status as contextual cues for the interpretation of facial expression of emotion. Sex Roles, 42, 183-208.
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    Brody, L. R., & Hall, J. A. (1993). Gender and emotion. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 447-460). New York: Guilford.
    Burney, J., & Irwin, H. J. (2000). Shame and guilt in women with eating-disorder symptomatology. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56, 51–61.
    Carlat, D. J., Camargo, C. A., & Herzog, D. B. (1997). Eating disorders in males: A report on 135 patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1127–1132.
    Collaer, M. L., & Hines, M. (1995). Human behavioral sex differences: a role for gonadal hormones during early development? Psychological Bulletin, 118, 55–107.
    DeFrancisco, V. P., & Palczewski, C. H. (2007). Communicating gender diversity: A critical approach. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
    Ekstrom, R. B., French, J. W., & Harman, H. H. (1976). Manual for kit of factor-referenced cognitive tests. Princeton: Educational Testing Service.
    Fan, P., & Marini, M.M. (2000). Influences on gender-role attitudes during the transition to adulthood. Social Science Research, 29, 258-283.
    Feingold, A. (1988). Matching for attractiveness in romantic partners and same-sex friends: a meta analysis and theoretical critique. Psychological Bulletin. 104: 226-235.
    Feldman Barrett, L., Lane, R.D., Sechrest, L., Schwartz, G.E. (2000). Sex differences in emotional awareness. Pers. Soc. Psychol.Bull. 26, 1027–1035.
    Fredrickson, B. L., & Roberts, T. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women’s lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173-206. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x
    Fredrickson, B. L., Roberts, T., Noll, S. M., Quinn, D. M., & Twenge, J. M. (1998). That swimsuit becomes you: Sex differences in self-objectification, restrained eating, and math performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 269–284.
    Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 348-362.
    Grossman, M., & Wood, W. (1993). Sex differences in intensity of emotional experience: A social role interpretation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1010-1022.
    Guerrero, L. K.,& Reiter, R. L. (1998). Expressing emotion: Sex differences in social skills and communicative responses to anger, sadness, and jealousy. In J. Canary & K. Dindia (Eds.), Sex differences and similarities in communication: Critical essays and empirical investigations of sex and gender in interaction (pp. 321-350).
    Hall, J. H., Carter, J. D., & Horgan, T. G. (2000). Gender differences in nonverbal communication of emotion. In A. H. Fischer (ed.), Gender and emotion: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 97-117). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Hargreaves, D. A. (2009). Muscular ideal media images and men's body image: Social comparison processing and individual vulnerability. Journal of Men & Masculinity, 10, 109-119.
    Harrison, K., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2003).Women’s sport media, self-objectification, and mental health in black and white adolescent females. Journal of Communication, 53, 216–232.
    Hines, M. (2004). Brain gender. New York: Oxford University Press. Hines, M. (2010). Gendered behavior across the lifespan. Hines, M. (2010). Gendered behavior across the lifespan. In M. E. Lamb, A. Freund, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), The handbook of lifespan development (Vol. 2): Social and emotional development (pp. 341–378). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
    Huxley, C. J., Clarke, V., & Halliwell, E. (2011). “It’s a comparison thing, isn’t it?”: Lesbian and bisexual women’s accounts of how partner relationships shape their feelings about their body and appearance. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35, 415-427.
    Hyde, J. S. (2005). The gender similarities hypothesis. American Psychologist, 60, 581-592.
    Hyde, J. S., Fennema, E., & Lamon, S. (1990). Gender differences in mathematics performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 139–155.
    Ickes,W., Gesn, P. R.,&Graham, T. (2000). Gender differences in empathic accuracy: Differential ability or differential motivation. Personal Relationships, 7, 95-109.
    International Commission on Radiological Protection (1979). Report of the task group on reference man (Vol. 23). New York: Pergamon Press.
    Kring, A. M., & Gordon, A. H. (1998). Sex differences in emotion: Expression, experience, and physiology. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 74, 686-703.
    LaFrance, M., & Banaji, M. (1992). Toward a reconsideration of the gender-emotion relationship. In M. S. Clark (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology (Vol. 14, pp. 178-201). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Lang, P. J. (1968). Fear reduction and fear behavior: Problems in treating a construct. In J. M. Schlien (Ed.), Research in Psychotherapy (Vol. 3, pp. 90-103).Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
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    Moore, T. M., & Stuart, G. L. (2004). Effects of masculine gender role stress on men’s cognitive, affective, physiological and aggressive responses to intimate conflict situations. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 5, 132-142.
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    Palan, K. L. (2001). Gender identity in consumer behavior research: A literature review and research agenda. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 10, Retrieved from
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    Sell, R. L., Wells, J. A., and Wypij, D. (1995). The prevalence of homosexual behavior and attraction in the United States, the United Kingdom and France: Results of national population-based samples. Archives of Sexual Behavior 24(3), 235-248.
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    Gertrude Vanderbilt ‍‍‍‍Whitney’s 1914 ‍‍‍‍self-portrait, "Chinoise," is a limestone sculpture in which she appears as a bodhisattva, one hand raised in a traditional Buddhist "fear not" gesture.

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  4. page Neo-Freudians and Contemporary Freudians edited I. A Map to the roots of Freudian Theory   ‍‍‍‍ {root_graph.jpg} ‍‍‍‍‍‍ Ego Psychology: A…

    I. A Map to the roots of Freudian Theory
    ‍‍‍‍ {root_graph.jpg} ‍‍‍‍‍‍
    Ego Psychology: A core contribution of psychoanalytic ego psychology was an emphasis on the autonomy of certain ego functions such as memory, thinking, and intelligence.
    Object-relations Theory: Object relations theory attempt to establish autonomy for the domain of object relations.
    Sullivan's Theory: Emphasis on the interpersonal field beginning with the infant—mother dyad
    Self Psychology: Emphasis on the Cohesive self that is the central developmental achievement
    Mahler: Separation-individuation as a core and separate dimension of psychological development
    ‍‍‍‍‍II. Contemporary Freudians Theory‍‍‍‍‍
    What is the core of Contemporary Frudians Theory? Who are the Contemporary Freudians?
    "Contemporary Freudian psychoanalysis has developed from Freud's original conception over a hundred years ago and reflects both continuity with the past and evolving changes in theory and technique."
    "...Freud's ideas about the organization of the mind and the motivating forces within it, the role of infantile sexuality in human development, the centrality of psychic conflict and anxiety in human suffering, the role of unconscious fantasies and wishes in compromise formations, and the therapeutic value of analyzing transference and resistance."
    "Contemporary Freudians have modified and integrated many different ideas into their technique: ideas about the origins and vulnerability of the self, early object relations and trauma, and the interactional aspects of the analytic relationship. Central concepts are Winnicott's ideas about the necessity of building trust into the analytic situation before one can interpret; Kohut's understanding of the narcissistic patient's need for mirroring and idealization; and Loewald's notions of the new object relationship as a crucial element for therapeutic change. These contributions have incorporated both one-person and two-person psychologies and widen the intrapsychic focus of psychoanalysis to include the intersubjective. The therapeutic relationship as well as interpretation and insight are viewed as central mutative factors."
    Retrieved from the webpage of Post Doctoral Program at New York University
    ‍‍‍III. Mahler, Pine, and Bergman's (1975) Developmental Phase ‍‍‍‍‍
    Mahler, Pine, and Gergman are contemprary Freudians. Specifically, Pind and Bergman are teachers in the Post Doctoral Program at New York University.
    Mahler proposed the concept of separation-individuation which is separated from the dimensions of psychosexual and ego development. According to her theory, the separation-individuation will occur in infant's development of object relations during 4-5 months to 30-36 months. Mahler emphasized that the infant must have an experience of "optimal human symbiosis" to successfully deal with the separation-individuation process. Mahler's theory has been generally accepted by contemporary Freudians.
    1. Symbiotic Phase: until about 4-5 months
    a. The Normal Autistic Phase
    The infant is narcissistic at this stage {Together_symbiosis_by_Rob_Hackett.jpg}
    Lack of awareness of a mothering agent
    Task: the achievement of the equilibrium of the organism
    b. The Beginning of the Symbiotic Phase (from the second month or so)
    ‍‍‍‍‍Efforts to reduce unpleasurable tension
    Dim awareness of the need-satisfying object
    Dependent on the symbiotic partner (primary care-giver)
    Perceiving the body as the object of the infant’s secondary narcissism
    Care-giver’s care may facilitate the infant to become to identify the external object
    c. The Normal Symbiotic Phase
    The infant may establish “memory islands” (Mahler and Gosliner, 1955): Vague understanding of the self
    The infant may not yet differentiate inner from outer and self from other.
    Obtaining different Responses to inside/outside stimuli.
    Noah laughing at 4 months
    2. ‍‍‍‍‍Intrapsychic Separation-Individuation Phase‍‍‍‍‍ (from 4/5 months to 30/36 months)
    a. Differentiation
    The beginning of the first subphase of separation-individuation
    Hatching process: a gradual ontogenetic evolution of the sensorium
    Development of body image
    b. ‍‍‍‍‍Practicing
    Overlapping with the differentiation subphase
    Physical differentiation from the care-giver
    Establishing a specific bond with the care-giver
    The function of the autonomy grows
    Some infants may have fear of object loss (desperate crying)
    Longing for the state of well-being and unity or closeness with the primary care-giver
    c. Rapprochement
    Final stage of the “hatching” process
    The first level of identity: Establishing a separate individuality (Mahler, 1958b).
    Awareness of separateness
    Increased needs and wishes to share new developed skills and experiences
    Increased needs for the love of the primary care-giver (object)
    Emphasis on fathering (Loewald, 1951; Greenacre,1966; Abelin, 1971).
    Fear of losing the love of the object becomes more evident.
    Challenges on the infant’s grandiosity by experiencing the fear of losing the love of the object (Mahler, 1966b).
    Developing the Ego structure and building a Cohesive Self - Widened emotional range (e.g., empathy)
    ‍‍‍‍‍Beginning of gender identity ‍‍‍‍‍
    d. On the way to libidinal object constancy
    Consolidation of individuality
    Beginnings of emotional object constancy
    The main task: (a) development of an individuality, and (b) obtaining a certain level of object constancy.
    Developing complex cognitive functions such as verbal skills, fantasy, and reality testing.
    Noah Furniture Walking at 10 Months
    ‍‍‍‍‍‍3. Data Analysis‍‍‍‍‍ ‍‍‍
    ‍‍‍‍‍The ‍‍‍‍‍rationales ‍‍‍‍‍for collecting data in the Mahler, Pine, and Bergman's (1975)research were presented below.
    Based on the data in this study, Mahler et al. (1975) proposed the concept of separation-individuation which is mentioned above.
    a. Participants
    i. 38 children and their 22 mothers
    ii. Consideration
    Age: average age at entry into study, range of ages at entry, average age at termination of regular attendance, range of ages at termination, average duration of participation
    Parity: firstborn, second born, later than second born
    Number of siblings in study
    Parental age
    Parental education
    Religion of families: Protestant, Jewish, Catholic, Mixed
    b. Data collection
    i. Type of data
    Participant observations
    Coordinated observations by participant and non-participant observers
    Area observations
    Interview with mother
    Interview with father
    Filming: films of mother-child pairs recording selected sequences of behavior
    Home visits
    Developmental tests of children
    Personality tests of mothers
    Observations of senior toddler group
    Individual play sessions with senior toddlers
    ii. Frequency
    iii. Method
    Self-report, observation, dictated film observations, projective test battery, preparation of developmental profiles
    iv. Recorder
    Research psychiatrists, senior participant observers, nonparticipant observers, research photographer, infant tester, clinical psychologist
    IV. Critiques on the Freud's Theory
    ‍‍‍‍‍1. Some Inadequacies in Freud’s Thought (Clinebell, 1981)‍‍‍‍‍
    He illuminated psychopathology in brilliant ways, but he neglected the healthy dimensions that are present in all persons, even the most disturbed.
    He underestimated the powerful influence of interpersonal relationships in all human growth. This error was compounded by the paucity of cross-cultural studies which led him to assume inaccurately that he could extrapolate from the characteristics of mid-Victorian Viennese patients in describing a universal psychology.
    Consequently Freud was no interested in developing an ecological ethic based on the awareness that, in the long run, the real good of individuals requires cooperation, not conflict and competition.
    Freud was unaware of the fact that growth nurturing, salugenic (wholeness-fostering) religions even existed.
    He assumed that what he saw in neurotic women patients (masochism and nonassertiveness, for example) was normative for women generally, rather than the consequence of the crippling effects of the patriarchal culture in which they live. His unconscious sexism caused him to exaggerate the role of fathers and underestimate the role of mothers in the growth of children. As feminist psychologist are now showing, many of his theories about “normal” psychosexual development are actually descriptions of the ways in which boys and girls develop in a patriarchal culture.
    2. Contemporary Studies
    ‍‍Recent studies on human brains seems to provide more evidence about how an infant can shape interpsychic achievement through the relationship with the primary care-giver(s) during early childhood.‍‍
    Uploaded by [[/user/uwmadison|uwmadison]] on Nov 30, 2010
    Ken Goldstein talks with Seth Pollak about how human brains can be shaped by childhood environment.
    NeuroScience. Cognition. Trauma. Interpersonal Neurobiology.
    V. Critiques on Doing Critiques
    1. Definition Issue: How can we define contemporary Freudians?
    I used the definition posted on the website Post Doctoral Program at New York University but this may not entirely justify my criteria. I had a difficult time when I was looking for the contemporary Freudians. I asked myself about who would be the contemporary Freudians. I do not think that I have enough critea for defining contemporary Freudians.
    2. Broad Range of Freudian Theory
    The Freudian theory is relatively hugh and also has been evolved in many ways since Freud's death. The psychoanalytic/psychodynamic theory seems less accessible to many novices who just start to study developmental theories. The more I understand the theory, the more I feel humble regarding my knowledge of Freudian theory. So I was cautious about how much information I have and how much I can make critiques on Freudian theories.
    3. Integration of Different Theories
    Do we need to adhere to one theory? This was my first question because I think that the theory has been changed and interpreted in many different ways since the creation of the theory. Following this question, can we try to integrate different theories? I think we do not have much information how the different theories are related to each other. At this point, I think the feminist's perspective seems to apply this. Differentiating one theory from any other theories seem to be the focus in the evolution of theory. I think we might need to consider similarity among theories in order to utilize knowledge that has been accumulated until now.
    VI. Further Readings
    Bergmen & Fahey (2005). Observations and representations of the earliest relationship: A view from separation-individuation and attachment.
    Davids (1999). Clinican commentary by a contemporary Freudian child psychotherapist and a contemporary Freudian analyst.
    Pine (2003). Mahler's concepts of 'Symbiosis' and separation-individuation: Revisited, revaluated, refined.

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  5. page Neo-Eriksonians edited Introduction In this page, critiques on the Erikson's theory has been made. Also, progress made b…
    In this page, critiques on the Erikson's theory has been made. Also, progress made by Neo-Eriksonians has been addressed. Lastly, contemporary progress were presented.
    ‍‍‍‍I. Neo-Eriksonians
    : Critiques on Theories‍‍‍‍
    1. Critiques on Erikson's Theory
    ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Pheonix and Rattansi's Critiques (2005)‍‍‍‍‍‍‍
    a. Overemphasis on the identity achievement during adolescent‍‍‍‍‍‍ period has been made in Erikson's theory. Considering the fact that Erikson viewed the identity development as a lifelong task, the identity development during adult period has been relatively ignored.
    b. Applicability to post modern societies may be limited.
    "Indeed, the social is assumed to be something “outside” the individual or “context” that is largely untheorized." (‍‍‍‍Pheonix and Rattansi, 2005, p. 208)
    Erikson's works have been challenged by the critiques such as lack of his awareness of the importance of gender and race issue in his theory.
    A universal theory which attempts to encompass all aspects of human development
    c. Vague concept on the construct of identity
    Evidence. The Erikson's theory may not apply to the sexual identity development of LGB population. Cody & Welch (1997) studied the life experiences of 20 men who has same-sex attraction in the rural setting of northern New England (Mean of age = 39.6). In this study, the identity development was described as a life-long process and the identity formation is still important during adulthood.
    "One subject simply stated, ‘‘He’s my best friend as well as my lover.’’ Others discussed how being involved with a partner within a rural community could be challenging, but was an integral component of affirming personal gay identity in a community where there are few gay role models. Still others shared that joining another man in a committed long-term relationship was the culmination of an ongoing process in affirming personal gay identity in a heterosexist and often gay-hostile world." (p. 64)
    2. ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Progress in Post Eriksonians and Contemporary Eriksonian‍‍‍‍‍‍‍s‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ ‍‍‍
    a. Marcia (2002) paid attention to adult identity. Kroger (2002) also started to address the adult identity. {}
    b. Critiques on the original theory of Erikson encouraged modification of the theory by incorporating modern perspective on social and cultural diversity into the theory.
    Henriques, Hollway, Urwin, Venn, and Walkerdine (1984; 1998) and Rattansi (1994) r‍‍‍‍‍‍‍egarded the relationship between the individual and the social as an entangled link.‍‍‍‍‍‍‍
    The assumption that societal influence will be the same in all context may not be true. The context may be different for certain populations such as race, ethnicity, social class, and gender.
    Schwartz (2005) indicated that it is needed to consider the diverse aspects of target population in identity research such as non-Whites sample, adolescents who dropping out of school or entering the work field, and younger adolescents.
    c. Berzonsky (2005) suggested to define explicitly the construct of identity such as "ego identity, social identity, multiple identities, multiple aspects of identity, and the like" (pp. 125-126).
    3. Critiques on Post Eriksonians' Theory
    Schwartz put critique on the contemporary identity research (2005).
    a. Narrowness of the focus: Marcia's (1966) identity status paradigm which falls into the category of neo-Eriksonian theory has mostly emphasized. The identity status has been criticised as underrepresenting Erikson (e.g., Côté & Levine, 1988; Schwartz (2001); van Hoof, 1999).
    4. Attempts to identify different social influence on identity development
    Gender ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Differences‍‍‍‍‍‍‍. Streitmatter (1993) examined the gender differences of developing identity. The results from the study indicated that the overall change of identity development patter were similar for female and male students. This results supports the Erikson's stage theory.
    To the Neo-Freudians and Contemporary Freudians wikipage

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  6. page home edited ... Scott Bischoff I am interested in trauma, how childhood traumas or neglect impact development…
    Scott Bischoff
    I am interested in trauma, how childhood traumas or neglect impact development, and what are protective factors which can help to alleviate the impact of negative early experiences.
    Juno Park
    I am interested in men's emotions. In general, I tend to more pay attention to social constructionists' view rather than essencialists'. I see humans will consistently develop their understanding of themselves throughout their life. Also, I think understanding of emotions will be the fundamental factor for individuals' development in a broad concept. Thus, I think the understanding of emotions may be the basic for individuals' growth. In addition to this, adult's population seems to be ignored from the developmental perspective. I would like to focus on life long development.

    Erin Davis
    I am very interested in human development across the lifespan, but at this point I particularly enjoy working with young children (in play therapy) and college students. Like Juno, I would like to explore theories which examine the adult population; I have yet to see a discussion of the many changes that adults go through in psychological development! I'm also interested in trauma recovery, dream research, art therapy, international and multicultural relationships, and how human development informs these areas of study.
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  7. page Juno Park edited {Photo080825_1.jpg} Juno Park, M.A. Doctoral Student in counseling psychology program, TC, B…
    Juno Park, M.A.
    Doctoral Student in counseling psychology program,
    TC, Ball State University
    Research Interests:
    - Emotions (emotion awareness and emotion regulation)
    - Gender issue
    - LGB issue
    - International issue
    Career Aspirations:
    - Academic: Research/Teaching/Practice
    Personal Interests:
    - Travel
    - Arts
    - Movie
    Questions and Answers:
    - What do I do when I am not on the 6th floor?
    => Cooking, night driving, watching movie, walking on a park, swimming, etc.
    - If you could be an animal, what would you be?
    => Tiger. Cat.
    - Where do I want to go?
    => Thailand and countries in Latin America
    - If I have 24 hours in my life, what will I do?
    => How would I know that? If so, I will spend time with my close friends and my family.

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Wednesday, March 5

  1. page Juno Park edited ... email: Research Interests: - Men's emotions Emotions (emotion awareness ..…
    Research Interests:
    - Men's emotionsEmotions (emotion awareness
    emotion regulation)
    - Gender issue

    - LGB issue
    - International issue
    Career Aspirations:
    - Academic: Research focusedResearch/Teaching/Practice
    Personal Interests:
    - Travel
    - Arts
    - Movie
    Questions and Answers:
    - What do I do when I am not on the 6th floor?
    => Sleeping, cooking,Cooking, night driving, watching movie, drinking, walking on
    - If you could be an animal, what would you be?
    => Tiger? Giraffe?Tiger. Cat.
    - Where do I want to go?
    => Mars? Thailand.
    - Magical power, what kind of power do I want to have?
    => Power which creates unlimited power?
    Thailand and countries in Latin America
    - If I have 24 hours in my life, what will I do?
    => How would I know that? If so, I will spend time with my close friends and my family.
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    3:59 am